Purpose of the Course:
The course will expose the students to the ethnographic knowledge of how anthropology analyzes issues such as rural poverty, environmental degradation and the globalization of trade. They will also gain an understanding of anthropological critiques of development theory and projects as well as know the methods used by anthropologists to study development projects. The students will also achieve knowledge on environmental issues, especially on those that have a direct developmental dimension.

Brief Contents of the Course:
Faith in twentieth-century development and progress has been severely shaken by the environmental crisis and the failures of international development assistance. What is development? What is the third world? How was it made? What problems does it face and how is it changing? What are the causes of failure in development/aid programs? Drawing on a variety of ethnographic materials and case-studies, this course discusses the nature of economic and social changes in post colonial societies and underdeveloped areas in the West/North, offers a critical analysis of sustainable development, and introduces the students to the practices, anthropological and otherwise, of planning policy interventions. The course is designed to provide the students with an analytical foundation on theories of development, sustainable development and nature-society relationship. The course introduces two dominant approaches to the question of sustainable development: economic and political Emphasis will be put on theories of environmental politics and political ecology. The course provides an overview of the growing and diverse body of literature on political ecology along with its analytical relevance to rural livelihoods research and environmental management issues.

Detail Syllabus:

  1. Introduction: Meaning of Development; History of Anthropology and Development; Brief Review of Basic Theories of Development
  2. Post Development Theory: Economic development as discourse and representation
  3. Sustainable Development: History and Critique of the Concept; Political Ecology Approach to Global Environmental Changes and Development.
  4. Culture Centred Approaches: Development as Freedom, Movementand Aspiration; Implications of a Cultural Perspectives for Public Policy and Development Planning
  5. Action Research, Participatory Approaches and Development Planning
  6. Applied Anthropology in Bangladesh: Development Programmes, Development interventions of Development Agencies, NGOs and grassroots organizations in Bangladesh.
  7. Entrepreneurships, especially in rural area.
  8. Importance of finance in entrepreneurships in poverty reduction.
  9. Case studies of successful interventions: PKSF, GRAMEEN BANK, BRAC, ASA, BIRD, BOGRA RURAL ACADEMY ETC. 



Reading List

Allen, T. and Thomas, A 2000  Poverty and development into the 21st century. Oxford University Press.
Ervin, A. M. 2000. Applied Anthropology: Tools and Perspectives for Contemporary Practice. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon
Gardner, Katy and David Lewis 1996  Anthropology, Development and the Post-modern Challenge. London: Pluto Press
Mikkelsen, B. H. 1995. Methods for Development Work and Research: A Guide for Practitioners. Sage Publications
Mosse, David and David Lewis 2005 The Aid Effect: Ethnographies of Development Practice and Neo-liberal Reform. London: Pluto Press
Nolan, R 2002  Development Anthropology: Encounters in the Real World. Boulder: Westview Press.
Pieterse, Nederveen 2001   Development Theory: Deconstruction/ Reconstructions. London: Sage
Vayda, Andrew Peter 2009  Explaining Human Actions and Environmental Changes, Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press

Chambers, Robert 2008 Revolutions in Development Inquiry. IDS, Earthscan.
Chambers, Robert 1983 Rural Development: Putting the Last First  London: Longman
Cernea, M. 1997 The Risks and Reconstruction Model for Resettling Displaced Populations. World  Development, 25:10, 1569–1587
Cernea, M., and S. Guggenheim, (eds) 1993 Anthropological Approaches to Resettlement: Policy, Practice and Theory. Boulder: Westview
Croll, Elizabeth 2000 Endangered Daughters: Discrimination and development in Asia. London: Routledge
Escobar, Arturo 1995  Encountering Development. The Making and Unmaking of the Third World. Princeton: Princeton University Press
Ferguson, J. 1990 The Anti-Politics Machine: "Development", Depoliticization, and Bureaucratic Power in Lesotho. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gewertz, Deborah B. and Frederick R. Errington 1991  Twisted Histories, Altered Contexts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Harper, Janice 2002 Endangered Species: Health, Illness, and Death Among Madagascar's People of the Forest. Carolina Academic Press.
Ha- Joon Chang, ed. 2003Rethinking Development Economics. London: Anthem.
Hobart, M., (ed) 1993  An Anthropological Critique of Development. London: Routledge
Hodgson, D. L. 2002 Once intrepid warriors: gender, ethnicity, and the cultural politics of Maasai development. Bloomington: Indiana University Press
Holmes-Eber, P. 2003  Daughters of Tunisia: Women, Family and Networks in a Muslim City. Westeview.
Indra, D. Edited 1999Engendering Forced Migration: Theory and Practice. Oxford: Bergahn.
Kabeer, Naila 1994 Reversed Realities: Gender Hierarchies in Development Thought. New York: Verso
Kleinen, J 1999. Facing the Future, Reviving the Past: A study of social change in a Northern Vietnamese Village. Institute for Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore. (SLC)
Little, Paul E. 1999 Environments and environmentalisms in anthropological research:  Facing a new millennium.  Annual Review of Anthropology 28: 253-284.
McCabe, J. Terrence 2003 Toward an anthropological understanding of sustainability:  A Preface.  Human Organization 62: 2: 91-92.
Middleton, N. and O’Keefe, P.  2001   Redefining Sustainable Development. London: Pluto Press
Moghadam, Valentine M. 2007 Gender and the Global Economy. In R. J. Timmons and A. Hite (eds.). The Globalization and Development Reader. Pp. 135-151. Malden, MA:  Blackwell.
Molyneux, Maxine 2002 Gender and the silences of social capital:  Lessons from Latin America.  Development and Change 33(2): 167-188.
Mosse, David, Farrington, J., and A. Rew, eds., 1998 Development As Process: Concepts and Methods for Working With Complexity.Routledge.
Mosse, David 2003 Texts and Tribals: Inside an Overseas Aid Project. Pluto Press
Mosse, David 2005. Cultivating Development. Pluto
Nash, J.C. 2001. Mayan Visions: the Quest for Autonomy in an Age of Globalization. Routledge.
Norgaard, R. 1994 Development Betrayed. Routledge.
Peet, Richard 1999 Theories of Development. New York: Guilford Press
Porter, D. with B. Allen and G. Thompson !991  Development in Practice: Paved With Good Intentions. Routledge
Rahnema, M. and V. Bawtree 1995The Post-Development Reader.
Rahnema, Majid and Victoria Bawtree 1997 The Post-Development Reader. Dhaka: UPL
R.J. Timmons and A. Hite (eds.), 2007 The Globalization and Development Reader.  Malden, MA:  Blackwell.
Rankin, Katherine N. 2003 Anthropologies and geographies of globalization.  Progress in Human Geography 26(6): 708-734
Roberts, J Timmons and Ammy Hite eds 2007 Globalization and Development Reader. Malden M.A. Blackwell
Roberts, J. T., and A. Hite 2000 From Modernization to Globalization: Perspectives on Development and Social Change. Oxford: Blackwell.
Rigg, Jonathan 1997Southeast Asia: The Human Landscape of Modernization and Development. London: Routledge
Rist, Gilbert 2003 The History of Development: From Western Origins to Global Faith. London: Zed.
Sachs, Wolfgang (ed.) 1993 Global Ecology: A new Arena of Political Conflict.London: Zed Books.
Sachs, Wolfgang 1999  Planetary Dialectics: Explorations in environment and development. London: Zed Books
Schroeder, Richard A. 1999 Shady practices: agroforestry and gender politics in the Gambia. Berkeley: University of California Press
Sen, Amartya 1999Development as Freedom. New York: Anchor Books
Shiva, Vandana 2002Water Wars; Privatization, Pollution, and Profit.Cambridge Massachusetts: South End Press
Shiva, Vandana 2005Breakfast of Biodiversity: the Political Ecology of Rain Forest Destruction
Stiglitz, Joseph E. 2007 Globalism’s discontents. InR.J. Timmons and A. Hite (eds.). The Globalization and Development Reader.Pp. 295-304. Malden, MA:  Blackwell.
Stone, M. Priscilla 2003 Is Sustainability for development anthropologists? Human Organization 62: 2: 93-99.
Sunkel, Osvaldo 2005 The unbearable lightness of neoliberalism. In Charles H. Wood and Bryan R. Roberts (eds.). Rethinking Development in Latin America.Pp. 55-78. University Park:  Pennsylvania State University Press
Swartley, Lynn 2002  Inventing Indigenous Knowledge. Routledge.
Wolf, Eric 1982 Europe and the People without History. Berkeley: University of California Press