BSS Coures

5.3 SECOND YEAR 3RD SEMESTER BSS (HONORS)

COURSE NUMBER AND TITLE: ANTH 201: THE RISE AND FALL OF FUNCTIONALIST PARADIGM IN ANTHROPOLOGY

CREDIT HOURS: 4 (FOUR)

INTRODUCTION TO THE COURSE

The course will orient the students with the functionalist paradigm that has dominated over the areas, methods, and perspectives of the discipline anthropology in question. This course is designed with a major focus on the study of origin, development, and downfall of the functionalist paradigm in anthropology examined through Thomas Kuhnian sense.

COURSE OBJECTIVES

  • Understand the works of Durkheim and Mauss about the foundation of functionalist ideas;
  • Focuses on the fathers of anthropological functionalism – Bronislaw Casper Malinowski and Alfred Reginald Radcliffe-Brown;
  • Understand and analyze the works of British late functionalists like Edward E. Evans-Pritchard, Meyer Fortes, Raymond Firth, and Max Gluckman;
  • Understand the works of Neo-functionalists in the United States and the ‘fall’ of this ‘widespread’ and once ‘dominant’ paradigm.

UNIT WISE LEARNING OUTCOMES, COURSE CONTENTS, AND NUMBER OF CONTACT HOUR

Learning Outcomes Course Content Contact Hour
Unit-1: Classical foundation of Functionalism
At the end of this unit, students will be able to-

  • explain the classical foundation of functionalism;
  • identify major contributions of Durkheim and Mauss in functionalism;
  • analyze and critically evaluate the history and concepts of the classical foundation of Functionalism
  • Emile Durkheim
  • Marcel Mauss
12 hrs
Unit-2: Early Functionalism
At the end of this unit, students will be able to-

  • explain early functionalist paradigm in anthropology;
  • identify major contributions of Malinowski and Radcliffe-Brown in functionalism;
  • analyze and critically evaluate the works of Malinowski and Radcliffe-Brownhistory.
  • Bronislaw Casper Malinowski – ‘functionalist’ theory of culture, theories of ‘need’, ‘magic’, ‘ritual’, and ‘family’
  • Alfred Reginald Radcliffe-Brown–the concept of ‘social structure’, theories of structural-functionalism, and ‘ritual’
12 hrs
Mid-term Examination
Unit-3: Late Functionalism
At the end of this unit, students will be able to-

  • explain late functionalist paradigm in anthropology;
  • identify major contributions of Evans Pritchard, Fortes, Firth, and Gluckman in functionalism;
  • analyze and critically evaluate the theoretical contributions of late functionalist thinkers.
  • Edward Evan Evans Pritchard
  • Meyer Fortes
  • Raymond Firth
  • Max Gluckman
12 hrs
Unit-4: American Neo-functionalism
At the end of this unit, students will be able to-

  • explain the American Neo-functionalist paradigm in anthropology;
  • identify major contributions of American Neo-functionalists;
  • analyze and critically evaluate the theoretical contributions of American Neo-functionalist.
  • American Neo- functionalism theorists
10 hrs
Unit-5: The ‘fall’ of the Functionalist School of Thought
At the end of this unit, students will be able to-

  • explain the fall of the functionalist school of thought;
  • identify the major reasons behind this fall;
  • analyze and critically evaluate the reasons for the fall of the functionalist school of thought.
  • The ‘fall’ of the Functionalist School of Thought
10 hrs
Semester Final Examination

INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES

Lecture, Discussion, Question-answer (quiz), Observation, Debate, Workshop, ICT integration, etc.

ASSESSMENT

Class attendance, Tutorial class participation, Group presentation, Class test, Term paper, Fieldwork report, Home assignment, Mid-term examination, Oral test (viva-voce), Semester final examination.

REFERENCES

REQUIRED TEXT

Alexander, Jeffrey, and Paul Colomy

1990 Neofunctionalism Today. In Frontiers of Social Theory. George Ritzer, ed. New York: Colombia University Press.

Barnard, Alan

2001 History and Theory in Anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Durkheim, Emile

1912 The Elementary Forms of Religious Life. London: Allen and Unwin.

Erickson, Paul A., and Liam D. Murphy, eds.

2001 Readings for a History of Anthropological Theory. Ontario: Broadview Press.

Evans- Pritchard, Edward Evans

1937 Witchcraft, Oracles and Magic among the Azande. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Firth, Raymond

1957 We, The Tikopia. Boston: Beacon Press.

Fortes, Meyer

1949 The Web of Kinship among the Tallensi. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Fortes, Meyer, and Edward Evans Evans-Pritchard

1940 African Political Systems. London & New York: International African Institute.

Gluckman, Max

1966 Custom and Conflict in Africa. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Layton, Robert

1997 An Introduction to the Theory in Anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

McGee R. Jon, and Richard L. Warms

2008 Anthropological Theory: An Introductory History. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Malinowski, Bronislaw Casper

1929 The Sexual Life of Savages in North–Western Melanesia: An Ethnographic Account of Courtship, Marriage and Family Life among the Natives of Trobriand Islands, British New Guinea. New York: Halcyon House.

Radcliffe-Brown, Alfred Reginald

1952 Structure and Function in Primitive Society. London: Cohen and West Ltd.

ADDITIONAL TEXT

Douglas, Mary

1980 Evans-Pritchard.  Brighton: Harvester.

Firth, Raymond, ed.

1957 Man and Culture: An Evaluation of the Work of Bronislaw Malinowski. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Geertz, Clifford

1988 Works and Lives: Anthropologists as Author. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Jarvie, I. C.

1965 Limits to Functionalism and Alternatives to it in Anthropology. In Functionalism in Social Sciences: The Strength and Limits of Functionalism in Anthropology. Don Martindale, ed. Philadelphia: The American Academy of Political and Social Sciences.

Jarvie, I. C.

1973 Functionalism. Minneapolis: Burgess Publishing Company.

Kapferer, Bruce

1987 The Anthropology of Max Gluckman. In Power, Process and Transformation: Essays in Memory of Max Gluckman (Social Analysis. Special Issues Series 22). Bruce Kapferer, ed. Adelaide: Department of Anthropology, University of Adelaide. http://www.Jstor.org/staple23169617 (to be accessed).

Kuper, Adam, ed.

1977 The Social Anthropology of Radcliffe-Brown.  London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Kuper, Adam

1983 Anthropology and Anthropologists: The Modern British School. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Kuper, Adam

1988 The Invention of Primitive Society: Transformations of an Illusion. London: Routledge.

Lesser, Alexander

1985 Functionalism in Social Anthropology. In History, Evolution and the Concept of Culture: Selected papers by Alexander Lesser. Sidney Mintz, ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Morrison, Ken

2006 Marx, Durkheim, Weber: Formations of Modern Social Thought. London, Thousand Oaks and New Delhi: Sage Publications.

Rangasami, Amrita

1986 Famine: The Anthropological Account: An Evaluation of the Work of Raymond Firth. Economic and Political Weekly21(36):1591-1601.

Spencer, J.

1965 The Nature and Value of Functionalism in Anthropology. In Functionalism in Social Sciences: The Strength and Limits of Functionalism in Anthropology. Don Martindale, ed. Philadelphia: The American Academy of Political and Social Sciences.

COURSE NUMBER AND TITLE: ANTH 202: INTRODUCTION TO PREHISTORY AND ARCHAEOLOGY

CREDIT HOURS: 4 (FOUR)

INTRODUCTION TO THE COURSE

The course is designed to familiarize students with the strategies to investigate archaeological remains and how these strategies contribute to the goals of archaeological anthropology.

COURSE OBJECTIVES

  • Understand an introduction to theory and methods in archaeological research, data collection, and analysis;
  • Understand the notion of prehistory and illustrate various prehistoric eras.

UNIT WISE LEARNING OUTCOMES, COURSE CONTENTS, AND NUMBER OF CONTACT HOUR

Learning Outcomes Course Content Contact Hour
Unit-1: Archaeology and the Structure of Archaeological Inquiry
At the end of this unit, students will be able to-

  • explain the background of archaeology and its future perspectives;
  • identify different approaches to archaeological inquiry;
  • analyze the structure of archaeological inquiry with different theories and paradigms.
  • Historical background of archaeology: mid-twentieth century and future perspectives
  • Archaeological inquiry: anthropological approach, scientific approach – low-level theory, middle-level theory, high-level theory
  • Paradigms
  • Testing ideas
  • Reconstructing the past
8 hrs
Unit-2: Doing Fieldwork, Geo-archaeology, and Site Formation Process
At the end of this unit, students will be able to-

  • explain the fieldwork methods of archaeology and site formation processes;
  • identify major aspects of fieldwork methods;

analyze geo-archaeology and formation processes in a systematic and archaeological context.

  • Doing fieldwork: survey for archaeological sites, surface archaeology, principles of excavation, test excavations, precision excavations, sifting the evidence and cataloging the findings
  • Geo-archaeology: stratigraphy
  • Formation processes in the systemic and archaeological contexts: determining the effect of formation processes
Unit-3: Chronology Building
At the end of this unit, students will be able to-

  • explain chronology building processes in archaeology;
  • identify salient features of different dating methods;
  • analyze the application of dating methods.
  • Dating methods- relative and absolute
  • Dating in historical archaeology
4 hrs
Unit-4: The Dimensions of Archaeology
At the end of this unit, students will be able to-

  • explain the concepts of time and space in archaeology;
  • identify salient features of archaeological classification and space-time systematics;
  • analyze the dimensions of archaeology through examining time-space.
  • Time, space, and form
  • Archaeological classification
  • Space-time systematics
4 hrs
Mid-term Examination
Unit-5: Taphonomy and People, Plants and Animals in the Past
At the end of this unit, students will be able to-

  • explain taphonomy;
  • identify major techniques to select people, plants, and animals from archaeological sites;
  • analyze experimental and ethno-archaeologies to study people, plants, and animals.
  • Experimental and ethno-archaeologies
  • Studying animal and plant remains from the archaeological sites
4 hrs
Unit-6: Bio-archaeological Approaches and Reconstructing Social and Political Systems of the Past
At the end of this unit, students will be able to-

  • explain different bio-archaeological approaches;
  • identify the need for bio-archaeological approaches in understanding social and political systems of the past;
  • analyze the social and political systems of the past through kinship, social status, and political organization.
  • Bio-archaeological approaches: skeletal analysis, paleo-demography, reconstructing diet from human bone, archaeology and DNA
  • Social and political systems of the past: social vocabulary, archaeology’s relation to gender, kinship, social status, and political organization
8 hrs
Unit-7: The Concept of Prehistory
At the end of this unit, students will be able to-

  • explain the concept of prehistory;
  • identify salient features of different stages of prehistory;
  • analyze the root causes of the development of different ages.
  • Stages of prehistory- stone age (Paleolithic, Mesolithic, and Neolithic)
  • Copper and bronze age
  • Iron age
  • Development of agriculture
12 hrs
Unit-8: Major Archaeological Sites in Bangladesh
At the end of this unit, students will be able to-

  • explain major archaeological sites in Bangladesh;
  • identify major aspects of different archaeological sites of Bangladesh;
  • analyze major archaeological remains to reconstruct the prehistory of Bangladesh.
  • Paharpur
  • Mahasthangarh
  • Mainamati
  • Wari-Bateshwar Ruins
4 hrs
Semester Final Examination

INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES

Lecture, Discussion, Question-answer (quiz), Observation, Debate, Workshop, ICT integration, etc.

ASSESSMENT

Class attendance, Tutorial class participation, Group presentation, Class test, Term paper, Fieldwork report, Home assignment, Mid-term examination, Oral test (viva-voce), Semester final examination.

REFERENCES

REQUIRED TEXT

Greene, Kevin

2002, Archaeology: An Introduction. London: Routledge, Taylor & Francis.

Kelly, Robert L., and David Hurst Thomas

2013 Archaeology. Belmont: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.

Renfrew, Colin, and Paul Bahn

2012 Archaeology: Theories, Methods, and Practice. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd.

ADDITIONAL TEXT

Ahmed, Nazimuddin

1984Discover the Monuments of Bangladesh: A Guide to Their History, Location & Development. Dhaka: University Press Limited.

Lewis, Barry, with Robert Jurmain and Lynn Kilgore

2013 Understanding Humans: Introduction to Physical Anthropology and Archaeology. Belmont: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.

Scarre, Chris, ed.

2013 The Human Past: World Prehistory & the Development of Human Societies. London: the Thames and Hudson Ltd.

COURSE NUMBER AND TITLE: ANTH 203: AN INTRODUCTION TO QUANTITATIVE METHODS IN ANTHROPOLOGY

CREDIT HOURS: 4 (FOUR)

INTRODUCTION TO THE COURSE

The course introduces students with quantitative methods in anthropology. This will also provide students with a hands-on experiment of different quantitative methods in anthropology. Principles of and epistemologies associated with quantitative methodology are included and major concepts of quantitative research are introduced.

COURSE OBJECTIVES

  • Understand the tradition of quantification in anthropology;
  • Understand key issues of quantitative research like summarization and visual representation of quantitative data;
  • Examine sampling, research design, research process, and techniques of collecting data;
  • Examine univariate and bivariate analysis and calculation of probability;
  • Describe the ways of generalizing and drawing an inference in quantitative research.

UNIT WISE LEARNING OUTCOMES, COURSE CONTENTS, AND NUMBER OF CONTACT HOUR

Learning Outcomes Course Content Contact Hour
Unit-1: The Need for Quantification in Anthropology
At the end of this unit, students will be able to-

  • explain the necessity for quantification in anthropology;
  • identify major principles of quantitative methodology;
  • analyze quantitative tradition in anthropology and its importance.
  • Principles of quantitative methodology
  • Epistemologies associated with quantitative research
  • Quantitative tradition in anthropology
4 hrs
Unit-2: Basic Concepts of Quantitative Research
At the end of this unit, students will be able to-

  • explain the basic concepts of quantitative research;
  • identify different types of variables;
  • analyze hypothesis, theory, and cause and effect of analysis.
  • Quantitative data
  • Variable- conceptual and operational, discrete and continuous, dependent and independent, intervening variable
  • Measurement of variables
  • Cause and effect analysis
  • Hypothesis, theory, propositions, and law
8 hrs
Unit-3: Techniques of Summarizing Quantitative Data
At the end of this unit, students will be able to-

  • explain different techniques of summarizing quantitative data;
  • identify different types of frequency distribution and tables;
  • analyze and prepare frequencies, percentages, and tables in anthropological research.
  • Frequency distribution
  • Proportion
  • Percentage
  • Ratio and rate
  • Tabulation- univariate and bivariate tables
8 hrs
Unit-4: Visualization of Quantitative Data
At the end of this unit, students will be able to-

  • explain processes of visualization;
  • identify different types of graphic presentation;
  • analyze the visual representation of quantitative data.
  • Graphic presentation- histogram, bar diagram, frequency polygon, ogives, pie chart, flow chart
4 hrs
Unit-5: Sampling
At the end of this unit, students will be able to-

  • explain different sampling techniques;
  • identify the merits and demerits of sampling;
  • analyze ways of determining sample size in anthropological research.
  • Techniques of sampling
  • Merits and demerits of the sampling techniques
  • Ways of determining sample size
  • Sampling error
4 hrs
Mid-term Examination
Unit-6: Quantitative Research Design and Research Process
At the end of this unit, students will be able to-

  • explain the quantitative research design and process;
  • identify salient features of quantitative research design;
  • analyze the research process and prepare a quantitative research design.
  • Quantitative research design
  • Research process
4 hrs
Unit-7: Techniques of Collecting Quantitative Data
At the end of this unit, students will be able to-

  • explain techniques of collecting quantitative data;
  • identify salient features of different quantitative data collection techniques;
  • analyze quantitative data and prepare a questionnaire for an interview.
  • Sample survey
  • Use of questionnaire and interview
4 hrs
Unit-8: Univariate and Bivariate Analyses of Statistical Data
At the end of this unit, students will be able to-

  • explain different analysis processes of statistical data;
  • identify the basic application of univariate and bivariate analyses in anthropological research;
  • analyze and apply univariate and bivariate analyses in anthropological research.
  • Univariate analysis: measures of central tendency, measures of dispersion, the logic of hypothesis testing
  • Bivariate analysis: ‘T’ test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), Chi-Square test, Fisher’s exact probability test, Correlation- Pearson’s ‘r’, Regression and ‘Z’ test
12 hrs
Unit-9: Calculation of Probability
At the end of this unit, students will be able to-

  • explain probability;
  • identify the basics of a probability distribution;
  • analyze normal distribution, permutation, and combination and apply in anthropological research.
  • Normal distribution
  • Permutation and combination
4 hrs
Unit-10: Generalizing and drawing inference
At the end of this unit, students will be able to-

  • explain inference;
  • identify the basics of drawing inference;
  • analyze inferences in anthropological research.
  • Generalizing inference
  • Drawing inference
4 hrs
Semester Final Examination
 

INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES

Lecture, Discussion, Question-answer (quiz), Observation, Debate, Workshop, ICT integration, etc.

ASSESSMENT

Class attendance, Tutorial class participation, Group presentation, Class test, Term paper, Fieldwork report, Home assignment, Mid-term examination, Oral test (viva-voce), Semester final examination.

REFERENCES

REQUIRED TEXT

Agresti, Alan, and Barbara Finalay

1997 Statistical Methods for the Social Sciences. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc.

Bernard, Russell

2011 Research Methods in Anthropology: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Lanham: Altamira Press.

Bernard, Russell, ed.

1998 Handbook of Methods in Cultural Anthropology. Walnut Creek: Altamira Press.

Driver, Harold E.

1953 Statistics in Anthropology. American Anthropologists 55:42-59.

Madrigal, Lorena

1998 Statistics for Anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

ADDITIONAL TEXT

Cochran, William G.

1954 Some Methods for the Common X² test. Biometrics 10:417-51.

Siegel, Sidney

1956 Non-parametric Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences. New York: McGraw-Hill

COURSE NUMBER AND TITLE: ANTH 204: POLITICAL ANTHROPOLOGY

CREDIT HOURS: 4 (FOUR)

INTRODUCTION TO THE COURSE

The course is designed to provide students with an overview of the evolutionary process of political organization from cross-cultural perspectives. It will also explore the idea of the essence of formal and informal political practices in Bangladesh.

COURSE OBJECTIVES

  • Understand the basic concepts and issues covered by political anthropology;
  • Understand the meaning and scope of studying political anthropology with a review of its historical development;
  • Analyze theories of the origin of the state;
  • Understand factions and factional politics and various dimensions of political systems cross-culturally.

UNIT WISE LEARNING OUTCOMES, COURSE CONTENTS, AND NUMBER OF CONTACT HOUR

Learning Outcomes Course Content Contact Hour
Unit-1: Political Anthropology
At the end of this unit, students will be able to-

  • explain political anthropology;
  • identify the scope of political anthropology;
  • analyze the meaning and historical development of political anthropology.
  • Meaning
  • Scope
  • Historical development
4 hrs
Unit-2: Evolution of Pre-industrial Political Systems
At the end of this unit, students will be able to-

  • explain pre-industrial political systems;
  • identify basic features of pre-industrial political systems;
  • analyze major functions of the band, tribe, chiefdom, and the state.
  • Band
  • Tribe
  • Chiefdom
  • The state
4 hrs
Unit-3: Conceptualizing Power
At the end of this unit, students will be able to-

  • explain power in anthropology;
  • identify salient features of power;
  • analyze the meaning and theoretical understandings of power concerning politics.
  • Concepts and theoretical understandings of power
  • Relationship between power and politics
4 hrs
Unit-4: The Perspectives of the State
At the end of this unit, students will be able to-

  • explain the state;
  • identify basic features of state and stateless societies;
  • analyze the theories related to the development of the state with critical understandings.
  • Theories of the origin and development of the states
  • Anthropological questions of state
  • Society against the state
  • Critiques of the concept of “stateless societies”
8 hrs
Unit-5: Significant Issues Addressed by Political Anthropology
At the end of this unit, students will be able to-

  • explain the similarities and differences of political systems;
  • identify the connections of power and politics with religion and other social systems;
  • analyze power and politics concerning influence, succession, and industrial west.
  • Political systems- similarities and differences
  • Power and influence
  • Politics and religion
  • Political succession
  • Politics and the industrial west
Mid-term Examination
Unit-6: Factional Politics in Cross-cultural Societies
At the end of this unit, students will be able to-

  • explain faction;
  • identify basic features of faction;
  • analyze factional politics with cross-cultural examples.
  • Concepts of faction
  • Factional politics in cross-cultural societies
4 hrs
Unit-7: Cases of Factional Politics and the Changes in Local Level Politics in Bangladesh
At the end of this unit, students will be able to-

  • explain the causes of factional politics in Bangladesh;
  • identify major aspects of factional politics in Bangladesh;
  • analyze the changes in local-level politics in Bangladesh due to factions.
  • Cases of factional politics
  • Changes in local-level politics in Bangladesh
4 hrs
Unit-8: Social Movement, Popular Resistance, and Revolt
At the end of this unit, students will be able to-

  • explain social movement from political anthropological perspectives;
  • identify major aspects of social movements;
  • analyze social movements, resistance, and revolt from political anthropological perspectives.
  • Social movement
  • Popular resistance
  • Revolt
4 hrs
Unit-9: Political Regimes of Domination and Resistance
At the end of this unit, students will be able to-

  • explain the concepts of domination and resistance;
  • identify basic features of domination and resistance;
  • analyze different theoretical understandings of domination and resistance focusing Weber, Gramsci, Althusser, and Lila Abu-Lughod.
  • Weber (bureaucratization)
  • Gramsci (policing and consent)
  • Althusser (the reproduction of submission)
  • Lila Abu-Lughod (the romance of resistance)
8 hrs
Unit-10: NGOs, Civil Society, and Transnationalism
At the end of this unit, students will be able to-

  • explain transnationalism and civil society;
  • identify basic features of civil society;
  • analyze the function of civil society for transnational networking and the state.
  • Origins of civil society
  • Civil society versus the state
  • NGOs and neoliberalism
  • Transnational networking
8 hrs
Semester Final Examination

INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES

Lecture, Discussion, Question-answer (quiz), Observation, Debate, Workshop, ICT integration, etc.

ASSESSMENT

Class attendance, Tutorial class participation, Group presentation, Class test, Term paper, Fieldwork report, Home assignment, Mid-term examination, Oral test (viva-voce), Semester final examination.

REFERENCES

REQUIRED TEXT

Banton, Michael, ed.

1968 Political Systems and the Distribution of Power. London: Tavistock.

Dahl, Robert A.

1963 Modern Political Analysis. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Fried, Morton H.

1967 The Evolution of Political Society. New York: Random House.

Lewellen, Ted C.

2003 Political Anthropology: An Introduction. London: Praeger Publishing.

Leach, Edmund Ronald

1970[1964] Political Systems of Highland Burma: A Study of Kachin Social Structure. London: The Athlone Press.

Nugent, David and Joan Vincent.

2007 A Companion to the Anthropology of Politics. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

ADDITIONAL TEXT

Barth, Fredrik

1965 Political Leadership among the Swat Pathans. Bergain: Bloomsbury Academic.

Brumfiel, Elizabeth M., and Kohn W. Fox, eds.

2003 Factional competition and political development in the New World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Chowdhury, Anwarullah

1978 A Bangladesh Village: A Study of Social Stratification. Dhaka: Center for Social Studies.

Evans-Pritchard

1940 The Nuer: A Description of the Modes of Livelihood and Political Institutions of a Nilotic People. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Gluckman, Max

2012 Politics, Law and Ritual in Tribal Society. New Brunswick and London: Aldine Transaction (Transaction Publishers).

Islam, A. K. M. Aminul

1974 A Bangladesh Village: Conflict and Cohesion – An Anthropological Study of Politics. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Schenkman Publishing Company.

Islam, Rafiul

2015,  “Changing Political Organisation of the Oraon Ethnic Community in Bangladesh: A Case Study of Padda Panch”, The Arts Faculty Journal, Vol. 6, No. 8, Dhaka: Faculty of Arts, University of Dhaka, pp. 155-168.

Jahangir, B.K.

1979 Differentiation, Polarization, and Confrontation in Rural Bangladesh. Dhaka: Centre for Social Studies.

Karim, A. H. M. Zehadul

1990 The Pattern of Rural Leadership in an Agrarian Society: A Case Study of the Changing Power Structure in Bangladesh. New Delhi: Northern Book Centre.

Mayer Fortes, and Edward Evan Evans-Pritchard, eds.

2015 [1940] African Political Systems. New York: Routledge.

Nicholas, Ralph W.

1965 Factions: A Comparative Analysis. In Political Systems and the Distribution of Power. Michael Banton, ed. Association of Social Anthropologists, Monograph No.2. London: Tavistock Publications.